#August 23 Today In History

*. 1904– The automobile tire chain is patented.
*. 1914– World War I: Japan declares war on Germany and bombs Qingdao, China.
*.1914 – World War I: Battle of Mons: The British Army begins withdrawal.
*. 1927– Italian Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti are executed after a lengthy, controversial trial.
*. 1929– Hebron Massacre during the 1929 Palestine riots: Arab attack on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, continuing until the next day, resulted in the death of 65-68 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city.
*.1944 – Freckleton Air Disaster– A United States Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people.
*.1958– Nigeria Airways Limited (NAL) was incorporated to replace the dissolved West African Airways Corporation. During its existence, NAL was wholly owned by the Nigerian government, and served as Nigeria’s national carrier. It ceased operations in 2003.
*. 1958– Chinese Civil War: The Second Taiwan Strait crisis begins with the People's Liberation Army's bombardment of Quemoy.
*. 1966– Lunar Orbiter 1takes the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.
*. 1970– Organized by Mexican American labor union leader César Chávez, the Salad Bowl strike, the largest farm worker strikein U.S. history, begins.
*. 1973– A bank robbery gone wrong in Stockholm, Sweden, turns into a hostage crisis; over the next five days the hostages begin to sympathise with their captors, leading to the term " Stockholm syndrome".
*. 1977– The Gossamer Condor wins the Kremer prize for human powered flight.
*. 1982– Bachir Gemayel is elected Lebanese President amidst the raging civil war.
*. 1985– Hans Tiedge, top counter-spy of West Germany, defects to East Germany.
*. 1989– Singing Revolution: Two million people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania stand on the Vilnius- Tallinn road, holding hands ( Baltic Way).
*.1989 – One thousand six hundred forty-five Australian domestic airline pilots resign after the airlines threaten to fire them and sue them over a dispute.
*. 1990– Saddam Hussein appears on Iraqi state television with a number of Western"guests" (actually hostages) to try to prevent the Gulf War.
*.1990 – Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
*.1990 – West Germany and East Germany announce that they will reunite on October 3.
*.1991 – Tim Berners-Lee opens the WWW, World Wide Web to new users.
*. 1994– Eugene Bullard, the only black pilot in World War I, is posthumously commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force.
*. 1996– Osama bin Laden issues message entitled 'A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.'
*. 2000– Gulf Air Flight 072crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.
*. 2006– Natascha Kampusch, who had been abducted at the age of ten, escapes from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil, after eight years of captivity.
*. 2007– The skeletal remains of Russia's last royal family members Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, and his sister Grand Duchess Anastasia are discovered near Yekaterinburg, Russia.
*. 2010– Manila hostage crisis, in which eight hostages were killed.
*. 2011– A magnitude 5.8 (class: moderate) earthquake occurs in Virginia. Damage occurs to monuments and structures in Washington D.C.and the resulted damage is estimated at $200 million–$300 million USD.
*.2011 – Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is overthrown after the National Transitional Councilforces take control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the 2011 Libyan civil war.
*. 2013– A riot at the Palmasola prison complex in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, kills 31 people.

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