532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different chariot teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the Hippodrome escalates into violence. 1055 – Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. 1158 – Vladislav II becomes King of Bohemia. 1569 – First recorded lottery in England. 1571 – Austrian nobility is granted freedom of religion. 1693 – A powerful earthquake destroys parts of Sicily and Malta. 1759 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the first American life insurance company is incorporated. 1779 – Ching-Thang Khomba is crowned King of Manipur. 1787 – William Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus. 1805 – The Michigan Territory is created. 1861 – Alabama secedes from the United States. 1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Arkansas Post: General John McClernand and Admiral David Dixon Porter capture the Arkansas River for the Union. 1863 – American Civil War: CSS Alabama encounters and sinks the USS Hatteras off Galveston Lighthouse in Texas. 1866 – SS London, an English steamship sinks in the Bay of Biscay 1879 – The Anglo-Zulu War begins. 1908 – Grand Canyon National Monument is created. 1912 – Immigrant textile works in Lawrence, Massachusetts, go on strike when wages are reduced in response to a mandated shortening of the work week. 1917 – The Kingsland munitions factory explosion occurs as a result of sabotage. 1919 – Romania reincorporates Transylvania. 1922 – First use of insulin to treat diabetes in a human patient. 1923 – Occupation of the Ruhr: Troops from France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr area to force Germany to make its World War I reparation payments. 1927 – Louis B. Mayer, head of film studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), announces the creation of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, at a banquet in Los Angeles, California. 1935 – Amelia Earhart becomes the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California. 1942 – World War II: The Japanese capture Kuala Lumpur. 1943 – World War II: The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China. 1943 – Italian-American anarchist Carlo Tresca is assassinated in New York City. 1945 – Greek Civil War: Last day of the Dekemvriana clashes in Athens, Greece. 1946 – Enver Hoxha, Secretary General of the Communist Party of Albania, declares the People's Republic of Albania with himself as head of state. 1949 – The first "networked" television broadcasts take place as KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania goes on the air connecting the east coast and mid-west programming. 1949 – A three-day snowfall begins in Los Angeles, California. Accumulations range from a trace near the coast to almost a foot in the San Fernando Valley. 1957 – The African Convention is founded in Dakar, Senegal. 1960 – Henry Lee Lucas, once listed as America's most prolific serial killer, commits his first known murder. 1962 – Cold War: While tied to its pier in Polyarny, the Soviet submarine B-37 is destroyed when fire breaks out in its torpedo compartment. 1962 – An avalanche on Huascarán in Peru causes 4,000 deaths. 1964 – Surgeon General of the United States Dr. Luther Terry, M.D., publishes the landmark report Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the United States saying that smoking may be hazardous to health, sparking national and worldwide anti-smoking efforts. 1972 – East Pakistan renames itself Bangladesh. 1973 – Major League Baseball owners vote in approval of the American League adopting the designated hitter position. 1986 – The Gateway Bridge, Brisbane in Queensland, Australia is officially opened. 1986 – First winter ascent of Kangchenjunga by Krzysztof Wielicki and Jerzy Kukuczka from Poland. 1994 – The Irish Government announces the end of a 15-year broadcasting ban on the IRA and its political arm Sinn Féin. 1996 – Space Shuttle program: STS-72 launches from the Kennedy Space Center marking the start of the 74th Space Shuttle mission and the 10th flight of Endeavour. 1998 – Over 100 people are killed in the Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria. 2003 – Illinois Governor George Ryan commutes the death sentences of 167 prisoners on Illinois' death row based on the Jon Burge scandal. 2013 – One French soldier and 17 militants are killed in a failed attempt to free a French hostage in Bulo Marer, Somalia.
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