#April16 : Today In History

1457 BC – Likely date of the Battle of Megiddo between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Kadesh, the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail. 73 – Masada, a Jewish fortress, falls to the Romans after several months of siege, ending the Great Jewish Revolt. 1346 – Dušan the Mighty is proclaimed Emperor, with the Serbian Empire occupying much of the Balkans. 1520 – The Revolt of the Comuneros begins in Spain against the rule of Charles V. 1582 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founds the settlement of Salta, Argentina. 1746 – The Battle of Culloden is fought between the French-supported Jacobites and the British Hanoverian forces commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, in Scotland. After the battle many highland traditions were banned and the Highlands of Scotland were cleared of inhabitants. 1780 – The University of Münster in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany is founded. 1799 – Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Mount Tabor: Napoleon drives Ottoman Turks across the River Jordan near Acre. 1818 – The United States Senate ratifies the Rush–Bagot Treaty, establishing the border with Canada. 1847 – The accidental shooting of a Māori by an English sailor results in the opening of the Wanganui Campaign of the New Zealand land wars. 1853 – The first passenger rail opens in India, from Bori Bunder, Bombay to Thane. 1858 – The Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, is wound up. 1862 – American Civil War: Battle at Lee's Mills in Virginia. 1862 – American Civil War: The District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act, a bill ending slavery in the District of Columbia, becomes law. 1863 – American Civil War: During the Siege of Vicksburg, gunboats commanded by Acting Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter run downriver past Confederate artillery batteries at Vicksburg. 1879 – The Tarnovo Constitution - the first Bulgarian constitution was voted and adopted by the Constituent National Assembly held in Veliko Tarnovo as part of the establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria. 1881 – In Dodge City, Kansas, Bat Masterson fights his last gun battle. 1894 – Manchester City F.C. was formed from Ardwick A.F.C.. 1908 – Natural Bridges National Monument is established in Utah. 1910 – The oldest existing indoor ice hockey arena still used for the sport in the 21st century, Boston Arena, opens for the first time. 1912 – Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly an airplane across the English Channel. 1917 – Vladimir Lenin returns to Petrograd, Russia from exile in Switzerland. 1919 – Mohandas Gandhi organizes a day of "prayer and fasting" in response to the killing of Indian protesters in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre by the British colonial troops three days earlier. 1919 – Polish–Soviet War: The Polish army launches the Vilna offensive to capture Vilnius in modern Lithuania. 1922 – The Treaty of Rapallo, pursuant to which Germany and the Soviet Union re-establish diplomatic relations, is signed. 1925 – During the Communist St Nedelya Church assault in Sofia, Bulgaria, 150 are killed and 500 are wounded. 1940 – Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians throws the only Opening Day no-hitter in the history of Major League Baseball, beating the Chicago White Sox 1–0. 1941 – World War II: The Italian-German Tarigo convoy is attacked and destroyed by British ships. 1941 – World War II: The Ustaše, a Croatian ultranationalist organization is put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis powers after Operation 25 is effected. 1943 – Albert Hofmann accidentally discovers the hallucinogenic effects of the research drug LSD. He intentionally takes the drug three days later on April 19. 1944 – World War II: Allied forces start bombing Belgrade, killing about 1,100 people. This bombing fell on the Orthodox Christian Easter. 1945 – World War II: The Red Army begins the final assault on German forces around Berlin, with nearly one million troops fighting in the Battle of the Seelow Heights. 1945 – The United States Army liberates Nazi Sonderlager (high security) prisoner-of-war camp Oflag IV-C (better known as Colditz). 1945 – More than 7,000 die when the German refugee ship Goya is sunk by a Soviet submarine. 1947 – Texas City disaster: An explosion on board a freighter in port causes the city of Texas City, Texas, to catch fire, killing almost 600. 1947 – Bernard Baruch coins the term "Cold War" to describe the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. 1953 – Queen Elizabeth II launches the Royal Yacht HMY Britannia. 1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist–Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism. 1962 – Walter Cronkite takes over as the lead news anchor of the CBS Evening News, during which time he would become "the most trusted man in America". 1963 – Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. pens his Letter from Birmingham Jail while incarcerated in Birmingham, Alabama for protesting against segregation. 1972 – Apollo program: The launch of Apollo 16 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. 1990 – The "Doctor of Death", Jack Kevorkian, participates in his first assisted suicide. 1992 – The Katina P runs aground off of Maputo, Mozambique and 60,000 tons of crude oil spill into the ocean. 1995 – George W. Bush names April 16 as Selena Day in Texas, after she was killed two weeks earlier. 2001 – India and Bangladesh begin a five-day border conflict, but are unable to resolve the disputes about their border. 2003 – The Treaty of Accession is signed in Athens admitting ten new member states to the European Union. 2007 – Virginia Tech shooting: Seung-Hui Cho guns down 32 people and injures 17 before committing suicide. 2012 – The trial for Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, begins in Oslo, Norway. 2012 – The Pulitzer Prize winners were announced, it was the first time since 1977 that no book won the Fiction Prize. 2013 – A 7.8-magnitude earthquake strikes Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran, killing at least 35 people and injuring 117 others. 2014 – The MV Sewol ferry carrying more than 450 people capsizes near Jindo Island off South Korea, leaving 295 passengers and crew dead and 9 more missing.

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