#April4 : Today In History

  • 1147 – First historical record of Moscow. 1287 – King Wareru founds the Ramanya Kingdom, and proclaims independence from the Pagan Kingdom. 1581 – Francis Drake is knighted for completing a circumnavigation of the world. 1609 – Philip III of Spain issues the decree of the "Expulsion of the Moriscos". 1660 – Declaration of Breda by King Charles II of Great Britain. 1721 – Sir Robert Walpole takes office as the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. 1768 – In London, Philip Astley stages the first modern circus. 1796 – Georges Cuvier delivers the first paleontological lecture. 1812 – United States President James Madison enacts a ninety-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom. 1814 – Napoleon abdicates for the first time and names his son Napoleon II as Emperor of the French. 1818 – The United States Congress adopts the flag of the United States with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each state (then 20). 1841 – William Henry Harrison dies of pneumonia, becoming the first President of the United States to die in office, and setting the record for the briefest administration. 1850 – A large part of the English village of Cottenham burns to the ground in suspicious circumstances. 1850 – Los Angeles is incorporated as a city. 1859 – Bryant's Minstrels debut "Dixie" in New York City in the finale of a blackface minstrel show. 1865 – American Civil War: A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln visits the Confederate capital. 1866 – Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by Dmitry Karakozov in the city of Saint Petersburg. 1873 – The Kennel Club is founded, the oldest and first official registry of purebred dogs in the world. 1887 – Argonia, Kansas elects Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States. 1905 – In India, an earthquake hits the Kangra Valley, killing 20,000, and destroying most buildings in Kangra, McLeod Ganj and Dharamsala. 1913 – First Balkan War: Greek aviator Emmanouil Argyropoulos becomes the first pilot to die in the Hellenic Air Force when his plane crashes. 1925 – The Schutzstaffel (SS) is founded in Germany. 1930 – The Communist Party of Panama is founded. 1933 – U.S. Navy airship, USS Akron, is wrecked off the New Jersey coast due to severe weather. 1939 – Faisal II becomes King of Iraq. 1944 – World War II: First bombardment of oil refineries in Bucharest by Anglo-American forces kills 3000 civilians. 1945 – World War II: American troops liberate Ohrdruf forced labor camp in Germany. 1945 – World War II: American troops capture Kassel. 1945 – World War II: Soviet troops liberate Hungary from German occupation and occupy the country itself. 1949 – Twelve nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 1958 – The CND peace symbol is displayed in public for the first time in London. 1960 – France agrees to grant independence to the Mali Federation, a union of Senegal and French Sudan. 1964 – The Beatles occupy the top five positions on the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart. 1965 – The first model of the new Saab Viggen fighter aircraft is unveiled. 1967 – Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" speech in New York City's Riverside Church. 1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray at a motel in Memphis, Tennessee. 1968 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 6. 1968 – A.E.K. Athens B.C. becomes the first Greek team to win the European Basketball Cup. 1969 – Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart. 1973 – The World Trade Center in New York is officially dedicated. 1973 – A Lockheed C-141 Starlifter, dubbed the Hanoi Taxi, makes the last flight of Operation Homecoming. 1975 – Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, New Mexico 1975 – A United States Air Force Lockheed C-5A Galaxy transporting orphans, crashes near Saigon, South Vietnam shortly after takeoff, killing 172 people. 1976 – Prince Norodom Sihanouk resigns as leader of Cambodia and is placed under house arrest. 1979 – Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan is executed. 1981 – The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force mounts an attack on H-3 Airbase and destroys about 50 Iraqi aircraft. 1983 – Space Shuttle Challenger makes its maiden voyage into space. 1984 – President Ronald Reagan calls for an international ban on chemical weapons. 1988 – Governor Evan Mecham of Arizona is convicted in his impeachment trial and removed from office. 1991 – Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their airplane over an elementary school in Merion, Pennsylvania. 1991 – The current flag of Hong Kong is adopted for post-colonial Hong Kong during the Third Session of the Seventh National People's Congress. 1994 – Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark found Netscape Communications Corporation under the name Mosaic Communications Corporation. 1996 – Comet Hyakutake is imaged by the USA Asteroid Orbiter Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous. 2002 – The Angolan government and UNITA rebels sign a peace treaty ending the Angolan Civil War. 2007 – Fifteen British Royal Navy personnel held in Iran are released by the Iranian President. 2009 – Three police officers are shot and killed during a shootout in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 2013 – More than 70 people are killed in a building collapse in Thane, India.
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