March 12 : Today in History ” 44 events that happened on this day”

  1. 538 – Vitiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Byzantine general, Belisarius.
  2. 1550 – Several hundred Spanish and indigenous troops under the command of Pedro de Valdivia defeat an army of 60,000 Mapuche at the Battle of Penco during the Arauco War in present-day Chile.
  3. 1622 – Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier, founders of the Jesuits, are canonized as saints by the Catholic Church.
  4. 1689 – The Williamite War in Ireland begins.
  5. 1811 – Peninsular War: A day after a successful rearguard action, French Marshal Michel Ney once again successfully delayed the pursuing Anglo-Portuguese force at the Battle of Redinha.
  6. 1864 – American Civil War: The Red River Campaign begins as a US Navy fleet of 13 Ironclads and 7 Gunboats and other support ships enter the Red River.
  7. 1868 – Henry O'Farrell attempts to assassinate Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
  8. 1868 – Basutoland, today called Lesotho, is annexed by the United Kingdom.
  9. 1881 – Andrew Watson makes his Scotland debut as the world's first black international football player and captain.
  10. 1885 – Tonkin Campaign: France captures the citadel of Bắc Ninh.
  11. 1894 – Coca-Cola is bottled and sold for the first time in Vicksburg, Mississippi, by local soda fountain operator Joseph Biedenharn.
  12. 1910 – Greek cruiser Georgios Averof is launched at Livorno.
  13. 1912 – The Girl Guides (later renamed the Girl Scouts of the USA) are founded in the United States.
  14. 1913 – Canberra Day: The future capital of Australia is officially named Canberra. (Melbourne remains temporary capital until 1927 while the new capital is still under construction.)
  15. 1918 – Moscow becomes the capital of Russia again after Saint Petersburg held this status for 215 years.
  16. 1920 – The Kapp Putsch begins when the Marinebrigade Ehrhardt is ordered to march on Berlin.
  17. 1921 – İstiklâl Marşı is adopted in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
  18. 1922 – Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan form the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
  19. 1928 – In California, the St. Francis Dam fails; the resulting floods kill over 600 people.
  20. 1930Mahatma Gandhi leads a 200-mile march, known as the Salt March, to the sea in defiance of British opposition, to protest the British monopoly on salt
  21. 1933 – Great Depression: Franklin D. Roosevelt addresses the nation for the first time as President of the United States. This is also the first of his "fireside chats".
  22. 1934 – Konstantin Päts and General Johan Laidoner stage a coup in Estonia, and ban all political parties.
  23. 1938 – Anschluss: German troops occupy and absorb Austria.
  24. 1940 – Winter War: Finland signs the Moscow Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, ceding almost all of Finnish Karelia. Finnish troops and the remaining population are immediately evacuated.
  25. 1942 – Pacific War: The Battle of Java ends with an ABDACOM surrender to the Japanese Empire in Bandung, West Java, Dutch East Indies.
  26. 1947 – The Truman Doctrine is proclaimed to help stem the spread of Communism.
  27. 1950 – The Llandow air disaster occurs near Sigingstone, Wales, in which 80 people die when their aircraft crashed, making it the world's deadliest air disaster at the time.
  28. 1961 – First winter ascent of the North Face of the Eiger.
  29. 1967 – Suharto take power from Sukarno when the MPRS inaugurated him as Acting President of Indonesia.
  30. 1968 – Mauritius achieves independence from the United Kingdom.
  31. 1971 – The March 12 Memorandum is sent to the Suleyman Demirel government of Turkey and the government resigns.
  32. 1992 – Mauritius becomes a republic while remaining a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  33. 1993 – Several bombs explode in Mumbai, India, killing about 300 and injuring hundreds more.
  34. 1993 – North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea says that it plans to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and refuses to allow inspectors access to its nuclear sites.
  35. 1993 – The 1993 Storm of the Century: Snow begins to fall across the eastern portion of the US with tornadoes, thunder snow storms, high winds and record low temperatures. The storm lasts for 30 hours.
  36. 1993 – Janet Reno is sworn in as the United States' first female attorney general.
  37. 1994 – The Church of England ordains its first female priests.
  38. 1999 – Former Warsaw Pact members the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland join NATO.
  39. 2003 – Zoran Đinđić, Prime Minister of Serbia, is assassinated in Belgrade.
  40. 2003 – WHO officially released global warning on pandemic SARS disease.
  41. 2004 – The President of South Korea, Roh Moo-hyun, is impeached by its National Assembly: The first such impeachment in the nation's history.
  42. 2009 – Financier Bernard Madoff pleads guilty in New York to scamming $18 billion, the largest in Wall Street's history.
  43. 2011 – A reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant melts and explodes and releases radioactivity into the atmosphere a day after Japan's earthquake.
  44. 2014 – A gas explosion in the New York City neighborhood of East Harlem kills eight and injures 70 others.
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