694 – At the Seventeenth Council of Toledo, Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims, sentencing all Jews to slavery. 1313 – Louis the Bavarian defeats his cousin Frederick I of Austria at the Battle of Gammelsdorf. 1330 – At the Battle of Posada, Basarab I of Wallachia defeats the Hungarian army of Charles I Robert. 1456 – Ulrich II, Count of Celje , last ruler of the County of Cilli, is assassinated in Belgrade. 1494 – The Family de' Medici are expelled from Florence. 1520 – More than 50 people are sentenced and executed in the Stockholm Bloodbath 1620 – Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower sight land at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. 1688 – Glorious Revolution: William of Orange captures Exeter. 1697 – Pope Innocent XII founds the city of Cervia. 1720 – The synagogue of Judah HeHasid is burned down by Arab creditors, leading to the expulsion of the Ashkenazim from Jerusalem. 1729 – Spain, France and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Seville. 1764 – Mary Campbell, a captive of the Lenape during the French and Indian War, is turned over to forces commanded by Colonel Henry Bouquet. 1780 – American Revolutionary War: In the Battle of Fishdam Ford a force of British and Loyalist troops fail in a surprise attack against the South Carolina Patriot militia under Brigadier General Thomas Sumter. 1791 – Foundation of the Dublin Society of United Irishmen. 1793 – William Carey reaches the Hooghly River. 1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte leads the Coup of 18 Brumaire ending the Directory government, and becoming one of its three Consuls (Consulate Government). 1822 – The Action of 9 November 1822 between USS Alligator and a squadron of pirate schooners off the coast of Cuba. 1848 – Robert Blum, a German revolutionary, is executed in Vienna. 1851 – Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape. 1857 – The Atlantic is founded in Boston, Massachusetts. 1861 – The first documented football match in Canada is played at University College, Toronto. 1862 – American Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, after George B. McClellan is removed. 1867 – Tokugawa shogunate hands power back to the Emperor of Japan, starting the Meiji Restoration. 1872 – The Great Boston Fire of 1872. 1880 – A large earthquake strikes Zagreb and causes many casualties. One of them is the Zagreb Cathedral. 1883 – The Royal Winnipeg Rifles of the Canadian Armed Forces (known then as the "90th Winnipeg Battalion of Rifles") is founded. 1887 – The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 1888 – Mary Jane Kelly is murdered in London, widely believed to be the fifth and final victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper. 1906 – Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country. He did so to inspect progress on the Panama Canal. 1907 – The Cullinan Diamond is presented to King Edward VII on his birthday. 1913 – The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, the most destructive natural disaster ever to hit the lakes, destroys 19 ships and kills more than 250 people. 1914 – SMS Emden is sunk by HMAS Sydney in the Battle of Cocos. 1917 – Joseph Stalin enters the provisional government of Bolshevik Russia. 1918 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the German Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed a Republic. 1921 – The Italian National Fascist Party comes into existence. 1923 – In Munich, Germany, police and government troops crush the Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria. The failed coup is the work of the Nazis. 1935 – The Congress of Industrial Organizations is founded in Atlantic City, New Jersey, by eight trade unions belonging to the American Federation of Labor. 1937 – Japanese troops take control of Shanghai, China. 1938 – The Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath dies from the fatal gunshot wounds of Jewish resistance fighter Herschel Grynszpan, an act which the Nazis used as an excuse to instigate the 1938 national pogrom, also known as Kristallnacht (Crystal Night). 1940 – Warsaw is awarded the Virtuti Militari. 1953 – Cambodia gains independence from France. 1960 – Robert McNamara is named president of Ford Motor Co., the first non-Ford to serve in that post. A month later, he resigned to join the administration of newly elected John F. Kennedy. 1963 – At Miike coal mine, Miike, Japan, an explosion kills 458, and hospitalises 839 with carbon monoxide poisoning. 1965 – Several U.S. states and parts of Canada are hit by a series of blackouts lasting up to 13 hours in the Northeast blackout of 1965. 1965 – The Catholic Worker Movement member Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, sets himself on fire in front of the United Nations building. 1967 – Apollo program: NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft atop the first Saturn V rocket from Cape Kennedy, Florida. 1967 – The first issue of Rolling Stone magazine is published. 1970 – Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6 to 3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce its law granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war. 1979 – Nuclear false alarm: the NORAD computers and the Alternate National Military Command Center in Fort Ritchie, Maryland detected purported massive Soviet nuclear strike. After reviewing the raw data from satellites and checking the early-warning radars, the alert is cancelled. 1985 – Garry Kasparov, 22, of the Soviet Union becomes the youngest World Chess Champion by beating Anatoly Karpov, also of the Soviet Union. 1989 – Cold War: Fall of the Berlin Wall. Communist-controlled East Germany opens checkpoints in the Berlin Wall allowing its citizens to travel to West Germany. This key event led to the eventual reunification of East and West Germany, and fall of communism in eastern Europe including Russia. 1993 – Stari Most, the "old bridge" in Bosnian Mostar built in 1566, collapses after several days of bombing. 1994 – The chemical element darmstadtium is discovered. 1998 – A US federal judge orders 37 US brokerage houses to pay 1.03 billion United States dollars to cheated NASDAQ investors to compensate for price fixing. This is the largest civil settlement in United States history. 1998 – Capital punishment in the United Kingdom, already abolished for murder, is completely abolished for all remaining capital offences. 2005 – The Venus Express mission of the European Space Agency is launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. 2005 – Suicide bombers attacked three hotels in Amman, Jordan, killing at least 60 people. 2007 – The German Bundestag passes the controversial data retention bill mandating storage of citizens' telecommunications traffic data for six months without probable cause. 2012 – A train carrying liquid fuel crashes and bursts into flames in northern Burma, killing 27 people and injuring 80 others. 2012 – At least 27 people are killed and dozens are wounded in conflicts between inmates and guards at Welikada prison in Colombo.
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